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The Mars 2020 rover will visit the perfect spot to find signs of life, new studies show

Published November 17, 2019 by SoClaimon

ศาสตร์เกษตรดินปุ๋ย : ขอบคุณแหล่งข้อมูล : หนังสือพิมพ์ The Nation

https://www.nationthailand.com/news/30378418?utm_source=category&utm_medium=internal_referral

The Mars 2020 rover will visit the perfect spot to find signs of life, new studies show

Nov 17. 2019
An artist's rendition of NASA's Mars 2020 rover studying its surroundings. MUST CREDIT: NASA/JPL-Caltech
Photo by: NASA/JPL-Caltech — NASA/JPL-Caltech

An artist’s rendition of NASA’s Mars 2020 rover studying its surroundings. MUST CREDIT: NASA/JPL-Caltech Photo by: NASA/JPL-Caltech — NASA/JPL-Caltech
By The Washington Post · Sarah Kaplan · NATIONAL, SCIENCE-ENVIRONMENT

195 Viewed

On some sunny day next summer, in front of a crowd at Kennedy Space Center, a rocket carrying NASA’s next, best hope at finding life on Mars will launch into the sky.

Seven months later, the car-size Mars 2020 rover will touch down near Jezero Crater, a dried-up lake in Mars’ northern hemisphere. With its six wheels and suite of high-tech instruments, it will scour the surrounding rocks for evidence that alien microbes once lived on the Red Planet.

Decades of surveying Mars with orbiting probes, landers and rovers has revealed the planet once harbored a thick atmosphere and water on its surface. Researchers have even discovered traces of complex organic molecules – possible building blocks for living cells.

Now, two new studies offer a tantalizing suggestion that Mars 2020 could find even stronger evidence of Martian life – if it ever existed.

The rocks around Jezero show evidence of carbonate and hydrated silica – molecules that are known on Earth to help preserve microscopic fossils over billions of years.

“It’s a big glaring road sign saying ‘look here, look here,'” said Briony Horgan, a planetary scientist at Purdue University and the lead author of a study in the journal Icarus reporting the carbonate detection. “Jezero Crater is an incredibly mineralogically diverse place, with lots of paths forward to search for biosignatures, which means we have a lot of chances to understand exactly what happened with the history of life here.”

But what would Mars 2020 have to find for scientists to be certain there once were Martians?

Both studies published this week relied on the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer (CRISM), an orbiting camera capable of scanning the Martian surface in infrared and visible light. From 250 miles high, CRISM produces colorful maps of minerals on the Red Planet.

Carbonates, which form when carbon dioxide interacts with rock and water, have been found all over Jezero Crater. But CRISM showed a particularly high concentration of the mineral along the crater’s inner rim, right where the shoreline of the lake would have been over 3 billion years ago.

To Horgan, this suggests they could have been left behind by waves lapping at the rock. She compared the deposits to the line of scum that forms where water meets the sides of a bathtub (scientists have even taken to calling the region “the bathtub ring”).

“What makes this so exciting is [carbonate] traps anything that it precipitates around,” Horgan said. “It mimics the structures of the microbes, so you get preserved textures . . . but it also traps the organic material in there as well.”

If microbes had been living on Jezero’s lakeshore, there’s a decent chance the carbonate could have captured them.

Some of the oldest fossils on Earth were entombed in carbonate. Scientists have found stromatolites – layered structures formed from carbonate-encased mats of bacteria – dating back as far as 3.7 billion years.

Jesse Tarnas, a planetary scientist at Brown University, also relied on CRISM maps for his research. His paper, published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters, describes hydrated silica near Jezero’s delta, where water from a long-gone river fed into the ancient crater lake.

Hydrated silica, better known as opal, can form in volcanic eruptions and at the edges of hot springs. But when it is created from sediments settling on a seafloor, it can form strong, sturdy crystals that are exceptionally effective at preserving signs of life. On Earth, scientists have found samples of hydrated silica containing ancient organic material and even fossilized cells.

Because the Martian hydrated silica is so close to a delta, it’s possible that it contains material from the river system. And if Mars’ rivers ever harbored life, remains of ancient organisms might still be trapped within those crystals.

Hydrated silica “is not something that’s been found before,” said the Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s Katie Stack Morgan, deputy project scientist for the 2020 mission. Morgan, who was not involved in Tarnas’ research, said that the mineral will likely be a prime target for the rover once it lands.

“It’s really exciting to have the thought that there are deposits in Jezero like we have on Earth,” she said. “We’re going to be thinking about ways to get as close to them as we can.”

The 2020 rover will be armed with a wide array of tools for examining these minerals. Cameras could capture images of stromatolites, if they exist. Lasers and molecular “sniffers” known as spectrometers will map out the composition of rocks at an elemental level.

“It’s going to be able to do the kind of astrobiological investigations we’ve been wanting to do on Mars for decades,” Horgan said.

An engineer conducts tests on NASA's Mars 2020 rover. CREDIT: NASA/JPL-Caltech Photo by: NASA/JPL-Caltech — NASA/JPL-Caltech

An engineer conducts tests on NASA’s Mars 2020 rover. CREDIT: NASA/JPL-Caltech Photo by: NASA/JPL-Caltech — NASA/JPL-Caltech

The Curiosity rover, which has been cruising around Gale Crater since 2012, can only measure molecules “in bulk,” Morgan said. Though it has found organic molecules, it cannot pinpoint them to particular rock layers, or associate them with microscopic structures.

“With 2020 we can go there and we can say we’re seeing a concentration of element or mineral associated with this very particular fine scale texture,” Stack said. “Those very subtle textural differences are what people look for and have kind of sharpened their eyes to when making a case for biosignatures.”

But even in scientists’ dream scenario – one in which there was life on Mars, and its remains were preserved, and the 2020 rover is able to find the fossils – it’s unlikely that mission alone will prove whether Martians ever existed.

The discovery of life beyond Earth is such an extraordinary claim, as Carl Sagan would say, it requires extraordinary evidence – evidence that only a human can deliver.

“What we’re really trying to do with this rover is look for ‘potential biosignatures,'” Horgan said. But only if “we verify it back here with all our incredible lab equipment,” she continued, “can we turn a ‘potential biosignature’ into a ‘biosignature.'”

The 2020 mission is only the first step of a proposed four-part program. Once it identifies the most compelling rocks around Jezero Crater, the rover will use a specially developed drill to collect and cache samples of the material.

Some day (if all goes according to plan) scientists will launch follow-up missions to retrieve the samples and bring them home. Finally, in an ultra-secure facility that hasn’t been built yet, they will analyze the rocks at an elemental scale to determine, definitively, whether they contain evidence of life.

The entire process will take years, if not decades. It may never happen. The necessary follow up missions haven’t been approved yet, let alone funded and developed. And voyages to Mars are notoriously difficult: About 50 percent of all attempts to reach the Red Planet have failed.

“There’s this tantalizing evidence that maybe [life] was there but you won’t know until you get the samples back,” Tarnas said. “And you really just gotta have the patience and fortitude to hold out for it.”

Senior national security official feared leaks of Trump’s call to Ukrainian leader could be damaging

Published November 17, 2019 by SoClaimon

ศาสตร์เกษตรดินปุ๋ย : ขอบคุณแหล่งข้อมูล : หนังสือพิมพ์ The Nation

https://www.nationthailand.com/news/30378417?utm_source=category&utm_medium=internal_referral

Senior national security official feared leaks of Trump’s call to Ukrainian leader could be damaging

Nov 17. 2019
File photo : President Trump

File photo : President Trump
By The Washington Post · Colby Itkowitz, Michael Kranish · NATIONAL, WORLD, POLITICS, COURTSLAW, CONGRESS, NATIONAL-SECURITY

222 Viewed

WASHINGTON – Timothy Morrison, a former White House national security official, told House investigators in sworn testimony that he feared leaks of the contents of the July 25 call between President Donald Trump and Ukrainian President Zelensky would be damaging, so he recommended restricting access to the transcript.

Morrison, an expert on Russia and Ukraine who served on the National Security Council before leaving the job at the end of October, said he knew immediately after listening to the call where Trump asks Zelensky to investigate the Bidens that they needed to keep it under wraps.

“I recommended to them that we restrict access to the package,” Morrison said, according to a transcript of his Oct. 31 testimony released by House Democrats on Saturday.

Democrats also made public the transcript of the deposition from Vice President Mike Pence’s special advisor on Europe and Russia, Jennifer Williams.

“The testimony released today shows that President Trump’s July 25 phone call with Ukrainian President Zelensky immediately set off alarm bells throughout the White House,” said Intelligence Chairman Adam Schiff of California, Foreign Affairs Chairman Eliot Engel of New York and acting Oversight Chairwoman Carolyn Maloney of New York in a joint statement.

Uncovering Colonial Williamsburg’s LGBTQ history

Published November 17, 2019 by SoClaimon

ศาสตร์เกษตรดินปุ๋ย : ขอบคุณแหล่งข้อมูล : หนังสือพิมพ์ The Nation

https://www.nationthailand.com/news/30378416?utm_source=category&utm_medium=internal_referral

Uncovering Colonial Williamsburg’s LGBTQ history

Nov 17. 2019
The Fife and Drum Corps performs in Colonial Williamsburg in 2017. MUST CREDIT: Washington Post photo by John McDonnell
Photo by: John McDonnell — The Washington Post
Location: Williamsburg United States

The Fife and Drum Corps performs in Colonial Williamsburg in 2017. MUST CREDIT: Washington Post photo by John McDonnell Photo by: John McDonnell — The Washington Post Location: Williamsburg United States
By The Washington Post · Samantha Schmidt · NATIONA

227 Viewed

Aubrey Moog-Ayers was outside of an apothecary shop a few years ago, working as an orientation interpreter at Colonial Williamsburg in Virginia, when two men pulled her aside.

The men, who said they were partners, asked her questions that stayed with her years later: What did she know about queer people in 18th-century America? Did anyone ever cross dress?

Moog-Ayers, who identifies as queer, told them about her own research – about gathering places for gay men in 18th-century England, known as “molly houses,” and about a Virginia colonist who dressed as a man and as a woman.

But stories about what today would be considered the LGBTQ community have never been a formal part of the programming at Colonial Williamsburg. For the past four years, Moog-Ayers has been encouraging the living-history museum to fill this void.

“I’m queer, and I wanted to see if that was something that existed, if I could see myself in the past,” said Moog-Ayers, now an apprentice weaver at Colonial Williamsburg.

This year, Moog-Ayers and other front-line staff members signed a petition calling for a push to study queer history at the popular tourist attraction, with the aim of telling a more complete story about those who lived in early America.

The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation agreed and recently launched a committee to research the history of gender and sexually nonconforming people. The group plans to create a source book for interpreters and guides to use while interacting with the half a million people who visit the historical site every year.

“Human beings who operate outside of sexual and gender expectations have always existed within and contributed to our history,” Beth Kelly, vice president of the Education, Research and Historical Interpretation Division at the foundation, wrote in an internal memo about the plans in April. “Sharing this history is vital if we are committed to telling a holistic narrative of our past.”

The foundation’s efforts are part of a growing effort across the country to include LGBTQ history in educational settings. At least five states, including Maryland earlier this year, have taken steps to require public schools to teach lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender history. About five years ago, the National Park Service also launched a project exploring and preserving the legacy of LGBTQ people.

“I think gradually we’re seeing this woven into the fabric of American education,” said Michael Bronski, a Harvard University professor and author of “A Queer History of the United States for Young People.” An important part of that effort, he said, will be incorporating these stories in museums, exhibits, libraries and historical sites such as Colonial Williamsburg.

Still, Bronski said he was surprised to see such an initiative in a place as prominent as Colonial Williamsburg, particularly on a topic that is still considered controversial among many Americans.

Other historical sites have faced backlash recently for grappling with topics some visitors see as polarizing. At Monticello, Mount Vernon and other plantations, they have complained about staff efforts to speak more honestly about slavery.

The changes come amid declining attendance at Colonial Williamsburg, which is attracting less than half of the visitors it did in the 1980s, according to an annual report from 2017. In 2018, ticketed attendance was 550,171.

Bronski anticipated possible pushback not just from some conservative visitors, but also from certain historians who oppose labeling people from centuries ago through the lens of the modern-day LGBTQ community.

Colonial Williamsburg historian Kelly Arehart acknowledged the challenges that come with researching sexuality and gender identity during the period, using language that didn’t exist at the time.

“There are all these gaps,” she said. “It’s like chasing shadows.”

Researchers plan to comb through available court documents, particularly from trials for those prosecuted under sodomy laws. Other clues can be found in letters or in poetry and art.

One local example mentioned by the Colonial Williamsburg researchers is the story of an indentured servant named Thomas Hall, who was born female and raised in England as a girl named Thomasine Hall. As an adult, Hall joined the army and began presenting as a man, with short hair and men’s clothing. In colonial Virginia, Hall continued to live as both a man and a woman.

After speculation by Hall’s neighbors and a forced physical examination, a Virginia court was unable to determine Hall’s sex. The court found that Hall “is a man and a woman,” and as a punishment, it ordered Hall to wear both men’s and women’s clothing.

“Thomasine was not allowed to choose gender for themselves,” said Kara French, an associate history professor at Salisbury University who is working as an outside consultant for Colonial Williamsburg’s researchers. “This idea that someone might be changing their gender or shifting their gender was not to be tolerated.”

Historians also point to Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, a Prussian officer who was enlisted to train the Continental Army. At the time, rumors spread that he was fired from the Prussian military for being gay. He nevertheless rose to the rank of major general, commanding an American division at the battle of Yorktown, according to “LGBTQ America: A Theme Study of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer History,” published in 2016 by the National Park Service and the National Park Foundation.

His sexuality “does seem to have been an open secret,” French said. “His expertise and his status allowed him certain privileges that the ordinary might not have had.”

Other examples cited by historians are not quite as clear-cut. For example, Alexander Hamilton wrote letters to Lt. Col. John Laurens that would seem intimate and almost romantic by today’s standards.

“Cold in my professions, warm in [my] friendships, I wish, my Dear Laurens, it m[n] be in my power, by action rather than words, [to] convince you that I love you,” Hamilton wrote in April 1779. “I shall only tell you that ’till you bade us Adieu, I hardly knew the value you had taught my heart to set upon you.”

It was not uncommon for men in the 18th and 19th centuries to experience “romantic friendships,” French said. Men and women lived very segregated lives at the time, she said, and many “primary attachments were going to be with people of the same sex.”

“They were brothers in arms, they were part of this close-knit group,” French said. “We’re not always sure about how deep these romantic friendships went.”

French also mentioned Deborah Sampson, who disguised herself as a man and joined the Patriot forces during the American Revolution. She was the only woman to earn a full military pension for participation in the Revolutionary War. She later co-wrote a memoir that boasted of “flirtations” from other women mistaking her for a man, French said.

It will never be possible to determine whether people like Sampson and Hamilton would identify with modern-day ideas of what it means to be queer. But that’s not necessarily the point of such research, Bronski said.

“It’s not about finding gay people in history,” Bronski said, “so much as it’s actually expanding our notions of human relationships and the complexity of human behavior.”

มหาเศรษฐีจีนอุทิศตัวตระเวนเก็บขยะในบ้านเกิดทุกวัน

Published November 16, 2019 by SoClaimon

ศาสตร์เกษตรดินปุ๋ย : ขอบคุณแหล่งข้อมูล : หนังสือพิมพ์โพสต์ทูเดย์

https://www.posttoday.com/world/606557

  • วันที่ 16 พ.ย. 2562 เวลา 19:00 น.

มหาเศรษฐีจีนอุทิศตัวตระเวนเก็บขยะในบ้านเกิดทุกวัน

จงชงหรง มหาเศรษฐีชาวจีน เจ้าของกิจการชิ้นส่วนรถยนต์และโรงงานวัสดุสำหรับผลิตบรรจุภัณฑ์ที่มีมูลค่ารวมกันกว่า 100 ล้านหยวน ตระเวนเก็บขยะในเมืองฉงชิ่งบ้านเกิดทั้งเช้าและเย็นทำมาแล้ว 4 ปีและจะทำต่อไป แม้จะมีสายตาเยาะเย้ยก็ตาม

ทุกๆ วันหลังทานอาหารเช้าและอาคารค่ำ จงในวัย 54 ปีจะขับรถเมอร์เซเดสเบนซ์คู่ใจ พร้อมกับอุปกรณ์เก็บขยะอย่างที่คีบสเตนเลส และเครื่องขยายเสียงเล็กๆ ที่บันทึกเสียงไว้ว่า “โปรดอย่าทิ้งขยะเพื่อปกป้องสิ่งแวดล้อมของพวกเรา และเพื่อให้เด็กๆ เติบโตขึ้นอย่างมีสุขภาพดี” ตระเวนไปตามท้องถนนในเมืองฉงชิ่ง โดยเฉพาะในย่านที่มีร้านอาหาร แล้วใช้เวลาราว 1-2 ชั่วโมงเดินเก็บขยะที่ชาวจีนทิ้งไม่เป็นที่เป็นทาง

มหาเศรษฐีรายนี้เผยว่า “นี่คือภารกิจในการเปลี่ยนนิสัยแย่ๆ ของผู้คน และเพื่อกระตุ้นให้คนพวกนี้ตระหนักในการรักษาสิ่งแวดล้อม และแม้จะถูกหัวเราะเยาะหรือเดินหนีบ้างก็ไม่ท้อ ยืนยันว่าจะเดินหน้าทำต่อไป”

ภารกิจเก็บขยะในบ้านเกิดของจงเริ่มขึ้นเมื่อปี 2015 หลังจากที่เขาได้พบกับอาจารย์เกษียณอายุของมหาวิทยาลัยชิงหัว ที่อุทิศตัวเก็บขยะในเมืองซานยาบนเกาะไหหลำของจีนพร้อมกับสามีทุกวัน สองสามีภรรยาได้กลายเป็นแรงบันดาลใจให้จงลุกขึ้นมาเก็บขยะบ้าง

เริ่มแรกลูกๆ และภรรยาของจงรู้สึกอับอายกับพฤติกรรมของสามีและพ่อที่ถูกมองว่าเป็นตัวประหลาดจนไม่กล้าเดินกับจงในที่สาธารณะ และที่ซ้ำร้ายไปกว่านั้นคือภรรยาถึงขั้นขู่ว่าจะขอหย่าถ้าไม่เลิกเก็บขยะ เนื่องจากเป็นห่วงความปลอดภัยของสามี เพราะจงเคยถูกกลุ่มวัยรุ่นที่เข้าไปเตือนให้ทิ้งขยะลงถังทำร้ายร่างกายจนเรื่องถึงสถานีตำรวจมาแล้ว

แต่ความคิดของลูกและภรรยาก็เปลี่ยนไปหลังจากได้เห็นภาพชุมชนที่สะอาดขึ้น และยังมีเสียงชื่นชมจากเพื่อนบ้าน นอกจากนี้เมื่อปีที่แล้วทางการเมืองฉงชิ่งยังประกาศในจงเป็น 1 ใน 10 บุคคลสาธารณะดีเด่น ส่วนคนในครอบครัวก็ได้รับรางวัลครอบครัวดีเด่นจากสมาคมสตรีจีนด้วย

เจ้าชายแอนดรูว์แห่งอังกฤษยอมรับทำราชวงศ์ผิดหวังที่พัวพันกับผู้ต้องหาล่วงละเมิดทางเพศเด็ก

Published November 16, 2019 by SoClaimon

ศาสตร์เกษตรดินปุ๋ย : ขอบคุณแหล่งข้อมูล : หนังสือพิมพ์โพสต์ทูเดย์

https://www.posttoday.com/world/606550

  • วันที่ 16 พ.ย. 2562 เวลา 16:10 น.

เจ้าชายแอนดรูว์แห่งอังกฤษยอมรับทำราชวงศ์ผิดหวังที่พัวพันกับผู้ต้องหาล่วงละเมิดทางเพศเด็ก

ดยุคแห่งยอร์กทรงอธิบายข้อข้องใจเกี่ยวกับเรื่องนี้ต่อสาธารณะเป็นครั้งแรก

เจ้าชายแอนดรูว์ ดยุคแห่งยอร์ก และพระราชโอรสในสมเด็จพระราชินีนาถอลิซาเบธที่ 2  กับเจ้าชายฟิลิป ดยุกแห่งเอดินเบอระ ทรงให้สัมภาษณ์กับ เอมิลี เมทลิส ผู้ประกาศข่าวในรายการ Newsnight ของสำนักข่าวบีบีซี ถึงความสัมพันธ์ของพระองค์กับ เจฟฟรีย์ เอปสตีน มหาเศรษฐีที่ฆ่าตัวตายในเรือนจำขณะรอการพิจารณาคดีล่วงละเมิดทางเพศเด็กหญิงเมื่อช่วงกลางปีที่ผ่านมา

เจ้าชายแอนดรูว์ตรัสว่า ทรงทำให้สมาชิกราชวงศ์อังกฤษผิดหวังที่เอาตัวเข้าไปข้องเกี่ยวกับ เจฟฟรีย์ เอปสตีน แม้ภายหลังจะทรงทราบดีว่าเขามีความผิดฐานล่วงละเมิดทางเพศเด็กแล้วก็ตาม และตรัสอีกว่า “ข้าพเจ้าพำนักที่บ้านของเขา ซึ่งเป็นสิ่งที่ข้าพเจ้าโกรธตัวเองมาก เพราะมันไม่เหมาะไม่ควรสำหรับการเป็นสมาชิกราชวงศ์ และราชวงศ์ของเราก็พยายามรักษามาตรฐานสูงสุดตลอดมา และข้าพเจ้าทำให้พวกเขาผิดหวัง”

เมื่อถูกถามว่า เวอร์จิเนีย จุฟฟรีย์ กล่าวอ้างว่าเคยพบกับพระองค์เมื่อปี 2001 เคยรับประทานอาหารเย็นกับพระองค์ เคยเต้นกับพระองค์ที่ไนต์คลับในกรุงลอนดอน และเคยมีสัมพันธ์ลึกซึ้งกับพระองค์ในบ้านของพระสหายของพระองค์ พระองค์จะตอบว่าอย่างไร เจ้าชายแอนดรูว์ตรัสว่า “จำไม่ได้ว่าเคยพบกับผู้หญิงคนนี้ จำไม่ได้เลย” และเมื่อถูกถามย้ำอีกครั้งก็ทรงยืนยันว่าจำไม่ได้

ทั้งนี้ เจ้าชายแอนดรูว์ทรงถูกตั้งข้อสงสัยถึงความเกี่ยวข้องกับเอปสตีนหลายครั้ง รวมทั้งคลิปวิดีโอที่พระองค์ทรงโบกพระหัตถ์ร่ำลาหญิงสาวรายหนึ่งที่แมนชั่นหรูในย่านแมนฮัตตันของสหรัฐซึ่งเป็นของเอปสตีนเมื่อปี 2010 ที่ถูกเผยแพร่เมื่อเดือน ส.ค.ที่ผ่านมา แต่ทรงปฏิเสธมาโดยตลอด ทว่าครั้งนี้ถือเป็นครั้งแรกที่พระองค์ตรัสถึงเรื่องเหล่านี้ต่อสาธารณะ

ภาวะโลกร้อนทำสุขภาพเด็กพังตั้งแต่เกิดจนโต

Published November 16, 2019 by SoClaimon

ศาสตร์เกษตรดินปุ๋ย : ขอบคุณแหล่งข้อมูล : หนังสือพิมพ์โพสต์ทูเดย์

https://www.posttoday.com/world/606539

  • วันที่ 16 พ.ย. 2562 เวลา 14:30 น.

ภาวะโลกร้อนทำสุขภาพเด็กพังตั้งแต่เกิดจนโต

องค์กร The Lancet Countdown ซึ่งติดตามความก้าวหน้าด้านสุขภาพและการปลี่ยนแปลงของสภาพภูมิอากาศ เผยรายงานประจำปีว่าด้วยผลกระทบของการเปลี่ยนแปลงของสภาพภูมิอากาศต่อสุขภาพของมนุษย์ว่า การเปลี่ยนแปลงของสภาพภูมิอากาศจะสร้างความเสียหายต่อสุขภาพของเด็กไปชั่วชีวิต ทั้งจากการเพิ่มขึ้นของโรคติดต่อร้ายแรงไปจนถึงภาวะขาดสารอาหาร หากคนทั้งโลกยังไม่สามารถลดการปล่อยก๊าซเรือนกระจก

รายงานฉบับนี้ยังเตือนอีกว่า ขณะนี้เด็กๆ ทั่วโลกล้วนได้รับผลกระทบจากมลพิษทางอากาศและสภาพอากาศสุดขั้วต่างๆ และคนรุ่นต่อไปจะได้รับผลกระทบหนักที่สุด ไม่ว่าจะเป็นโรคที่แพร่กระจายทางอากาศ ขาดสารอาหารเนื่องจากผลผลิตทางการเกษตรล้มเหลว หรือแม้แต่ความเครียดทางร่างกายและจิตใจจากปัญหาน้ำท่วมหรือไฟป่า

รายงานของ The Lancet Countdown ระบุต่อไปว่า เดือนสิงหาคมเป็นเดือนที่ร้อนที่สุดเป็นประวัติการณ์ และขณะนี้อุณหภูมิของโลกเพิ่มขึ้น 1 องศาเซลเซียสนับตั้งแต่ช่วงปฏิวัติอุตสาหกรรมแล้ว ขณะที่การปล่อยก๊าซเรือนกระจกยังเพิ่มขึ้นอย่างต่อเนื่อง ซึ่งคาดว่าหากเป็นเช่นนี้ต่อไปอุณหภูมิของโลกจะเพิ่มขึ้นถึง 4 องศาเซลเซียสภายในปี 2100 และแน่นอนว่าจะส่งผลเสียต่อสุขภาพของมนุษย์อย่างหลีกเลี่ยงไม่ได้

นิค วัตส์ ประธาน The Lancet Countdown เผยว่า เด็กๆ ที่ลืมตาดูโลกวันนี้มีอายุขัยเฉลี่ย 71 ปี หรือจะอาศัยอยู่บนโลกไปจนถึงปี 2090 ซึ่งหมายความว่าเด็กเหล่านี้จะต้องเผชิญกับวันที่โลกร้อนขึ้น 4 องศาเซลเซียส

รายงานฉบับนี้ยกตัวอย่างว่า ในช่วง 30 ปีที่ผ่านมาพืชพันธุ์ที่เป็นอาหารหลักของโลก อาทิ ข้าว ข้าวโพด ข้าวสาลี ล้วนมีผลผลิตลดลง ส่งผลให้ทารกและเด็กเล็กมีความเสี่ยงขาดสารอาหารเพิ่มขึ้น ซึ่งจะส่งผลกระทบต่อการเจริญเติบโต เช่น หยุดการเจริญเติบโต ระบบภูมิคุ้มกันอ่อนแอ และปัญหาด้านพัฒนาการในระยะยาว รวมทั้งจะมีเด็กที่ไวต่อการติดเชื้อโรคมากขึ้น

Cambodia sees big jump in number of visitors from Thailand

Published November 16, 2019 by SoClaimon

ศาสตร์เกษตรดินปุ๋ย : ขอบคุณแหล่งข้อมูล : หนังสือพิมพ์ The Nation

https://www.nationthailand.com/ann/30378382?utm_source=category&utm_medium=internal_referral

Cambodia sees big jump in number of visitors from Thailand

Nov 15. 2019

Chinese tourists accounted for 38.7 per cent of foreign tourists visiting Cambodia in the first nine months of 2019. Photo: The Phnom Penh Post/ANN

Chinese tourists accounted for 38.7 per cent of foreign tourists visiting Cambodia in the first nine months of 2019. Photo: The Phnom Penh Post/ANN

By The Phnom Penh Post
Asia News Network
Phnom Penh

601 Viewed

The number of Thai visitors to Cambodia recorded a 22.4 per cent increase year on year in the first nine months while Chinese tourists again topped the list of foreign visitors to the country.

Cambodia received 4.81 million international tourists in the first nine months, a 10 per cent increase over last year. A total of 1.86 million Chinese, up 30 per cent over the same period last year, accounted for 38.7 per cent of all foreign tourists, according to the monthly report of Cambodia’s Ministry of Tourism.

Vietnamese tourists ranked second, with a total of 63,700 visitors, up 9.1 per cent.

Ministry of Tourism spokesman Top Sopheak told The Phnom Penh Post that the large number of Chinese tourists travelling to Cambodia was a key contributor to the industry’s growth, though tourist-friendly Siem Reap experienced a slight dip in the number of foreign visitors.

“The growth is consistent with the ministry’s forecast of 6.6 million international tourists this year,” he said, noting that the number of visitors from other Asian countries such as South Korea and Laos had fallen in the period.

Around 3.39 million tourists arrived in Cambodia by air, up 14.7 per cent on last year, with two of the Kingdom’s three international airports recording increases in arrivals.

Phnom Penh International Airport received 12.7 per cent more passengers over the period, while Sihanoukville International Airport recorded a 308 per cent increase.

However, arrivals at Siem Reap International Airport dropped by 10.9 per cent when compared to the same period last year.

Cambodia Association of Travel Agents (Cata) president Chhay Sivlin told The Phnom Penh Post that while the growth in the number of Chinese tourists was encouraging, he was concerned about the drop in visitors from other countries.

“The growth in the number of Chinese tourists is positive, but the decline in other foreign tourists such as from Korea and the US is not good news,” she said.

Last year, Cambodia recorded a total of 6.2 million visitors travelling to Cambodia from abroad, up 10.7 per cent from 2017 – with Chinese nationals making up 2.02 million.

Wife of Indonesian suicide bomber was planning terror attacks in Bali

Published November 16, 2019 by SoClaimon

ศาสตร์เกษตรดินปุ๋ย : ขอบคุณแหล่งข้อมูล : หนังสือพิมพ์ The Nation

https://www.nationthailand.com/ann/30378379?utm_source=category&utm_medium=internal_referral

Wife of Indonesian suicide bomber was planning terror attacks in Bali

Nov 15. 2019

In recent years, Indonesian radicals, some linked to ISIS-inspired militant group Jamaah Ansharut Daulah, have targeted the police and security forces. Photo: Antara/The Jakarta Post/ANN

In recent years, Indonesian radicals, some linked to ISIS-inspired militant group Jamaah Ansharut Daulah, have targeted the police and security forces. Photo: Antara/The Jakarta Post/ANN

By The Jakarta Post
Asia News Network

506 Viewed

Indonesian police said on Thursday that they had arrested the wife of the suicide bomber who struck at the police headquarters in Medan, North Sumatra, a day earlier, killing himself and injuring six others.

National police spokesman Dedi Prasetyo also told reporters in Jakarta that the woman, identified only by her initials DA, was active on social media and had interacted with a female terrorist imprisoned in Medan about plans to bomb the holiday island of Bali.

“In their social media network, they had planned terrorism attacks in Bali,” Brigadier-General Dedi said, referring to the women.

He added that the police believed that DA had radicalised her 24-year-old husband, who has so far also been identified only by his initials, RMN.

Investigations are continuing into whether RMN was “connected to a structured or non-structured network”, the spokesman said.

Based on the probe so far, the suicide bomber was a “lone wolf”, or had acted alone.

Three other members of his family were reported to have been detained on Wednesday in Medan, the provincial capital of North Sumatra. It was not clear if they had been released yesterday.

During a raid on RMN’s house, the police found pipes, bows and arrows.

One local television station, Kompas TV, reported that police also found pipes and explosive materials in another raid on the house of a man, identified as SA, who was allegedly considered a religious leader by the bomber.

Wednesday’s attack took place at around 8.40am local time, 20 minutes after RMN appeared on closed-circuit television walking into the police compound.

North Sumatra police spokesman Tatan Dirsan Atmaja said the bomber, clad in a ride-hailing service jacket, entered the police compound twice. He was cleared after physical checks on the first occasion, but ignored orders to remove his jacket when he returned to the compound.

Intelligence and terrorism expert Stanislaus Riyanta said RMN was most likely affiliated with the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS).

He also said that Wednesday’s incident should serve as a warning for security forces to be alert for more terror attacks.

“Christmas and New Year can be their favourite time to perform their actions,” he said.

In recent years, radicals, some linked to ISIS-inspired militant group Jamaah Ansharut Daulah, have targeted the police and security forces.

The Medan attack came a month after a suspected militant stabbed and wounded former chief security minister Wiranto in Banten.

In August, an alleged militant attacked police officers at a station in Indonesia’s second-largest city of Surabaya, but the police managed to arrest him.

The official Antara news agency on Wednesday quoted Indonesia’s chief security minister Mahfud MD as saying that the Medan bombing would lead law enforcement agencies to uncover the terrorist network in North Sumatra, just as they did in West Java with the arrest of 51 terror suspects following the knife attack on Mr Wiranto, a former army general.

Professor Mahfud also revealed that one suspect of the Medan attack escaped, local media reported.

Police headquarters in other Indonesian cities, including Denpasar in the country’s most popular tourist destination, Bali, and Makassar, the provincial capital of South Sulawesi, have tightened security following the incident in Medan, local media reported.

Safety and security at airports across the sprawling archipelago have also been tightened.

“We will take preventive measures so that a similar incident won’t happen again,” said Brig-General Dedi.

Impeachment witness provides firsthand account of hearing Trump demand ‘investigation’ of Bidens by

Published November 16, 2019 by SoClaimon

ศาสตร์เกษตรดินปุ๋ย : ขอบคุณแหล่งข้อมูล : หนังสือพิมพ์ The Nation

https://www.nationthailand.com/news/30378399?utm_source=category&utm_medium=internal_referral

Impeachment witness provides firsthand account of hearing Trump demand ‘investigation’ of Bidens by

Nov 16. 2019
Former U.S. ambassador to Ukraine Marie Yovanovitch describes how she felt reading President Trump’s comments about her as she testified in the House impeaching hearings Friday. (Bonnie Jo Mount/The Washington Post)

Former U.S. ambassador to Ukraine Marie Yovanovitch describes how she felt reading President Trump’s comments about her as she testified in the House impeaching hearings Friday. (Bonnie Jo Mount/The Washington Post)
By Karoun Demirjian, Rachael Bade, John Hudson and Toluse Olorunnipa
The Washington Post

93 Viewed

President Trump specifically inquired about political investigations he wanted carried out by Ukraine during a July phone call with a top U.S. diplomat who then told colleagues that the president was most interested in a probe into former vice president Joe Biden and his son, a State Department aide said Friday in closed-door testimony that could significantly advance House Democrats’ impeachment inquiry.
David Holmes, an embassy staffer in Kyiv, testified that he overheard a July 26 phone call in which Trump pressed U.S. Ambassador to the European Union Gordon Sondland about whether Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky would “do the investigation,” according to three people who have read his opening statement and spoke on the condition of anonymity to describe its contents.

“Ambassador Sondland replied that ‘he’s gonna do it,’ adding that President Zelensky will do ‘anything you ask him to,’ ” Holmes said, according to these people.

Holmes’s testimony, first reported by CNN, directly implicates Trump in an alleged scheme at the heart of the impeachment probe, which Democrats have pursued in an attempt to prove that the president leveraged military assistance and an Oval Office meeting in exchange for investigations into Biden and a debunked theory concerning Ukrainian interference in the 2016 presidential election.

It came just hours after Marie Yovanovitch, the former U.S. ambassador to Ukraine, told the House Intelligence Committee that Trump recalled her after a “smear campaign” aimed at advancing corrupt interests in Ukraine. Yovanovitch, who said that she had felt threatened by Trump’s previous negative comments about her, was forced to respond to a fresh attack by the president while she spoke.

“It’s very intimidating,” she said after Trump took to Twitter to criticize her career during her testimony.

Holmes testified that he overheard parts of Trump’s phone call with Sondland during a lunch in Kyiv, because the president was speaking so loudly that his voice was audible through the phone to others sitting at the table nearby, according to the people familiar with the testimony.

Holmes’s testimony, which confirmed an account relayed Wednesday by acting ambassador to Ukraine William B. Taylor Jr., increases pressure on Republicans, who have dismissed other witnesses as relaying hearsay and speculation about Trump’s motives in withholding almost $400 million in aid from Ukraine. It also raises the stakes for next week’s testimony by Sondland, who will be pressed to answer questions about the call. Sondland didn’t mention the call during closed-door testimony before lawmakers last month, according to a transcript. Instead, he claimed little knowledge of any link between Biden and the investigations sought by Trump.

Holmes testified that when he asked Sondland about Trump’s views concerning Ukraine after the phone call, Sondland said Trump didn’t care about the country and was primarily interested in the investigations it could provide into allegations of corruption by Biden and his son Hunter being pushed by the president’s personal lawyer, Rudolph W. Giuliani.

During her testimony, Yovanovitch criticized Giuliani and Trump, saying “foreign and corrupt interests hijacked our Ukraine policy” with their help.

Yovanovitch said that when she first read how Trump had talked about her to his Ukrainian counterpart in a July phone call — saying ominously that “she’s going to go through some things” — the color drained from her face.

“It sounded like a threat,” she said.

Yovanovitch’s five-hour testimony, which began with a passionate defense of American diplomacy and ended to a crescendo of applause, took a dramatic turn when Trump took to Twitter to denigrate her again as she spoke.

“Everywhere Marie Yovanovitch went turned bad,” Trump wrote shortly after the diplomat’s opening statement.

Trump’s attack on a widely respected Foreign Service officer — while she calmly but forcefully denounced previous attempts to smear her — drew widespread criticism, with many Democratic lawmakers calling it witness intimidation and some Republicans distancing themselves from the president’s scorched-earth tactics even as they pushed back against the Democrats’ charge.

Yovanovitch called the tweets “very intimidating.”

“I can’t speak to what the president is trying to do,” she said after House Intelligence Committee Chairman Adam B. Schiff (D-Calif.) read Trump’s tweets to her. “But I think the effect is to be intimidating.”

While the second day of the House public impeachment hearings ended with both parties still firmly entrenched behind their battle lines, Yovanovitch’s highly personal testimony put Republicans on the defensive, undercutting GOP talking points with a sober account of what she called a “smear campaign” conducted by Trump’s allies in Ukraine.

While her interactions with Trump were minimal, Yovanovitch described how actions by the president and Giuliani served to undermine American interests in Ukraine. A campaign led by Giuliani and supported by corrupt officials led to her abrupt ouster from her post in Kyiv, she said.

She also methodically dismissed several Republican attempts to advance theories embraced by Trump and Giuliani, ranging from alleged Ukrainian interference in the 2016 election to the charge that Biden and his son had been involved in corruption in Ukraine.

Republicans attempted to play down Yovanovitch as irrelevant to the impeachment inquiry, pointing out just how much she didn’t know, and questioning why the Intelligence Committee was interviewing her.

“I’m not exactly sure what the ambassador is doing here today,” the panel’s ranking Republican, Rep. Devin Nunes (Calif.), said, suggesting that Yovanovitch’s predicament was little more than a personnel dispute that would be “more appropriate for the subcommittee on human resources on foreign affairs.”

Nunes and the GOP’s counsel, Steve Castor, asked Yovanovitch questions to prove her irrelevance, asking whether she was involved in preparing for the July 25 phone call between Trump and Zelensky, or whether she had taken part in plans for a White House meeting between the two heads of state, or whether she had ever spoken with Trump or his acting chief of staff, Mick Mulvaney, among other queries. Yovanovitch answered no to all of them.

“The ambassador’s not a material fact witness to any of the accusations that are being hurled at the president in this impeachment inquiry,” Nunes said.

But Trump’s tweet could ultimately make Friday’s hearing a more central part of his own impeachment.

Schiff told reporters during a break in the hearing that the nation had just seen “witness intimidation in real time by the president of the United States.” Other Democrats discussed drafting an article of impeachment related to obstruction of justice.

Some conservatives also criticized the tweet as misguided, and several Republican lawmakers contradicted Trump by praising rather than attacking Yovanovitch’s public service.

Former independent counsel Ken Starr, a frequent Trump defender, said on Fox News that the president “was not advised by counsel in deciding to do this tweet. Extraordinarily poor judgment.”

Earlier Friday, the White House released a rough transcript of Trump’s April 21 phone call with Zelensky, a largely congratulatory conversation after Zelensky’s election victory.

While Trump viewed the call as exculpatory, it quickly became a controversy of its own after discrepancies between the rough transcript and a previous White House readout of the call were discovered.

The White House readout, which serves as the administration’s post-call description of the conversation, said the call underscored “the unwavering support of the United States for Ukraine’s sovereignty and territorial integrity.” The readout also said Trump spoke with Zelensky about “reforms that strengthen democracy, increase prosperity and root out corruption.”

None of those topics are mentioned in the rough transcript released Friday.

The White House seemed to tacitly blame Lt. Col. Alexander Vindman, who has delivered damaging testimony against the president, for the discrepancy in the official readout offered in April and the memorandum of the phone call.

“It is standard operating procedure for the National Security Council to provide readouts of the president’s phone calls with foreign leaders. This one was prepared by the NSC’s Ukraine expert,” spokesman Hogan Gidley said Friday.

But Vindman was not responsible for making the final update to the readout, according to a person familiar with his account. The official readout was based on talking points that the president did not follow, according to a person briefed on the call who spoke on the condition of anonymity to describe internal deliberations. After the call, the White House staff did not update the readout to reflect what Trump actually said — and what he left out.

Yovanovitch’s dramatic first-person narrative of her abrupt recall this spring from Kyiv, where she had served as ambassador since 2016, dominated much of the second day of televised impeachment hearings.

In addition to criticizing the “smear campaign” that forced her to book an unexpected flight to leave Ukraine on short notice, Yovanovitch also described in detail how it felt to read a rough transcript of Trump’s July phone call with Zelensky when it was published in September — and to learn that the two world leaders had traded insults about her.

“I was shocked, absolutely shocked, and devastated frankly,” she said.

Even as she spoke, back at the White House, where aides said Trump did not plan to watch the proceedings, Trump was tweeting about the former ambassador.

“She started off in Somalia, how did that go?” Trump added, referring one of the numerous hardship postings the veteran diplomat held in her 33-year career.

“Then fast forward to Ukraine, where the new Ukrainian President spoke unfavorably about her in my second phone call with him,” Trump continued. “It is a U.S. President’s absolute right to appoint ambassadors.”

Back in the hearing room, Schiff informed Yovanovitch that the president had been tweeting about her, even as she spoke, and said he wished to give her an opportunity to respond.

She at first appeared taken aback. Schiff began to read aloud. A small smile crept onto Yovanovitch’s face, as she heard the president had blamed her for troubles in war-torn Somalia.

“I don’t think I have such powers,” she replied. “Not in Mogadishu, Somalia. Not in other places.”

She went on to say she believes she and other U.S. diplomats have made things “demonstrably better” in the nations where they have served, particularly in Ukraine, which she said has made strides in strengthening democratic institutions in recent years.

Asked later to respond to allegations that he committed witness tampering by tweeting disparagingly about Yovanovitch during her testimony, Trump pivoted and said the real tampering was done by the Democrats for not allowing the White House lawyers to ask questions or the Republicans to call their own witnesses.

“I have the right to speak. I have freedom of speech, just as other people do,” Trump told reporters at the end of a White House event on lowering prescription drug prices.

The House impeachment inquiry is expected to intensify in the days ahead, something the White House decried Friday.

“It is difficult to imagine a greater waste of time than today’s hearing, and yet unfortunately we expect more of the same partisan political theater next week from House Democrats,” White House press secretary Stephanie Grisham said in a statement.

Carol Leonnig, John Wagner, Rosalind S. Helderman, Colby Itkowitz and Mike DeBonis contributed to this report.

1-room hotel offers villa-like feel in Japan’s Tottori

Published November 16, 2019 by SoClaimon

ศาสตร์เกษตรดินปุ๋ย : ขอบคุณแหล่งข้อมูล : หนังสือพิมพ์ The Nation

https://www.nationthailand.com/news/30378396?utm_source=category&utm_medium=internal_referral

1-room hotel offers villa-like feel in Japan’s Tottori

Nov 16. 2019
By Keisuke Uranishi
The Japan News/Asia News Network

162 Viewed

Guests at a hotel in Tottori Prefecture do not have to worry about noisy neighbours.

The hotel, which opened in October near the entrance of the pathway to Daisenji temple in the town of Daisen, has only a single room.

Equipped with a full kitchen to allow guests to cook for themselves using local ingredients, the concept of the Daisen Sando Hotel Itadaki is to give visitors an opportunity to experience the area’s charms in a way that is not possible in a typical hotel.

“We want people to fully enjoy Daisen while feeling like they’re staying at a holiday villa,” a person involved in the facility said.

The hotel opened Oct. 20 on the fourth floor of a multiuse facility called Komorebito, which has a tourist information center on the first floor and a cafe on the second floor.

The 70-square-meter room has an electric piano and a sofa in front of a large-screen television. The kitchen is equipped with a refrigerator, microwave and rice cooker, and is furnished with tableware produced at Shussaigama pottery in Izumo, Shimane Prefecture.

The wooden balcony provides a nice view of the Sea of Japan. “Guests can enjoy an extraordinary space that is different from hotels at tourist destinations, with the feel of a luxury resort condominium,” said Eisuke Kodani, 37, who came up with the idea for the hotel and is one of the representatives of Sando, the company that manages the facility.

Kodani himself is a native of the town. “I had no interest in nature, and all I thought about was leaving town as soon as I could,” he said.

He got out by attending a university in Tokyo, and hardly ever returned for a visit. However, at age 27 a chance meeting with a man who was involved in community development using local resources changed his view of his hometown.

“If you work on doing something that no one’s done before, depending on the idea, it might make the town more interesting,” he thought.

During his vacations when he returned to the town, he started planning and holding treasure hunts and other events.

In 2014, he quit the major game company he had been working for and returned home. He later joined Sando, which was established with funding from the Daisen Tourism Organization.

Hearing from hikers that Daisen lacked a place to relax and take a break, he opened the Sunset Cafe on the second floor of Komorebito in 2017. With business going well, he started planning a lodging facility on the building’s vacant fourth floor.

“The supermarkets in town are filled with cheap, tasty ingredients,” he said. “Having people actually go to stores to choose and then cook for themselves is a way of getting across what’s great about Daisen.”

Guests can choose from options such as a combination of zazen meditation and vegetarian breakfast at a pilgrims’ guesthouse, or to have a local fisherman who is also a chef come to cook fresh fish for them.

Three couples have stayed so far. The guests barbecued on the balcony or tried the vegetarian breakfast.

One said, “It was great to enjoy our meal while watching a beautiful sunset.” Another said, “It was fun to have a morning different than at a regular hotel.”

“Because it’s limited to one group a day, we can really listen to guests’ needs and provide them with the information they need, whether it’s about hot springs, shops or other things,” Kodani said. “By combining options, people can enjoy different experiences each time they come, which I hope allows them to sense the diverse attraction of Daisen.”

Rates start at ¥25,000 per person (excluding tax) based on double or triple occupancy. Reservations and other inquiries can be made on the website (https://www.komorebito.com/).

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